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Benzocaine-induced Methemoglobinemia
Frederick Hegedus DDS and
 Kathleen Herb DMD, MD
Article Category: Case Report
Volume/Issue: Volume 52: Issue 4
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2005
DOI: 10.2344/0003-3006(2005)52[136:BM]2.0.CO;2
Page Range: 136 – 139

greatly decreased due to an increased amount of methemoglobin in the blood. The hallmark of methemoglobinemia is cyanosis unresponsive to high-flow oxygen in the absence of cardiac or pulmonary disorders. Acutely developing methemoglobinemia is infrequently encountered in clinical practice. Several drugs used in surgery and medicine can cause methemoglobinemia. A patient is described who developed methemoglobinemia after topical administration of benzocaine during surgery for multiple fascial space infections. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old female

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Nurain Rehman BDS, and
 Samir Riaz Qazi BDS, FFDRCSI, MPHIL
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 66: Issue 1
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2019
Page Range: 24 – 29

analogue scale in previous studies 13 but was used in this study to compensate for the reduced sensitivity of the numeric rating scale. 14 A larger sample size also allowed us to study gender differences in pain perception. Figure 1. Flowchart illustrating participant enrolment, groups, and interventions. Figure 1. Flowchart illustrating participant enrolment, groups, and interventions. Integers from 1 to 100 were randomly sorted into the benzocaine group (to

Comparing the Efficacy of a Compound Topical Anesthetic Versus Benzocaine: A Pilot Study
Lydia Park DDS,
 James Tom DDS,
 Nicole Bui DDS,
 Melissa Wilson PhD, and
 Thomas Tanbonliong DDS
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 67: Issue 1
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2020
Page Range: 9 – 15

anxiety and pain through both psychological and pharmacologic effects. 3 , 5 – 7 Psychologically, subjects who are informed they are going to receive topical anesthetic may experience less anticipated pain and may experience decreased apprehension. 6 – 8 Physiologically, reduction in pain is achieved by blocking nerve impulse conduction in the free nerve endings located within the superficial tissues through the temporary decrease of sodium ion permeability in the nerve cell membrane. 4 , 9 The most commonly used intraoral topical anesthetic is 20% benzocaine

Figure 2 ; Number of patients whose visual analog scale scores indicated preference for refrigerant or benzocaine or no preference.
Arthur C. DiMarco and
 Ann O'Kelley Wetmore
<bold>Figure 2</bold>
Figure 2

Number of patients whose visual analog scale scores indicated preference for refrigerant or benzocaine or no preference.


Toshiyuki Kishimoto,
 Nobuyuki Matsuura,
 Masataka Kasahara, and
 Tatsuya Ichinohe
<bold>Figure 4</bold>
Figure 4

A comparison of visual analogue scale scores. (A) Control treatment, (B) Lido treatment, and (C) Benzo treatment. Box plots show the median, lower and upper quartiles (25–75%), and minimum and maximum values. Lido indicates 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 12.5 μg/mL epinephrine; Benzo, 20% benzocaine.


Toshiyuki Kishimoto,
 Nobuyuki Matsuura,
 Masataka Kasahara, and
 Tatsuya Ichinohe
<bold>Figure 3</bold>
Figure 3

Comparison of trigeminal somatosensory evoked potential percentage change in amplitude N100-P125/P310-N340. (A) Control treatment, (B) Lido treatmen,t and (C) Benzo treatment. Significant differences were observed for N100-P125 between baseline and immediately, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes after patch removal in the Lido treatment. Significant differences were observed for P310-N340 in the Lido and Benzo treatments compared with the Control treatment 5 minutes after patch removal. Lido indicates 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 12.5 μg/mL epinephrine; Benzo, 20% benzocaine.


Arthur C. DiMarco DMD and
 Ann O'Kelley Wetmore RDH, MSDH
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 63: Issue 2
Online Publication Date: Jun 01, 2016
Page Range: 55 – 61

the use of a topical anesthetic gel [20% benzocaine] in reducing the pain experienced by patients who received posterior palatal injections” but suggested “a larger sample in future studies would minimize” 6 (p71) the effect of uncontrollable variables such as application of pressure, rate of injection, and refrigerant tissue temperature. To our knowledge, no subsequent study has been conducted with this refrigerant prior to this one. While approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for use on skin and oral mucosa, the refrigerant Kosaraju and

Toshiyuki Kishimoto DDS, PhD,
 Nobuyuki Matsuura DDS, PhD,
 Masataka Kasahara DDS, PhD, and
 Tatsuya Ichinohe DDS, PhD
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 64: Issue 2
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2017
Page Range: 73 – 79

anesthetic, 20% benzocaine, to clarify the effectiveness of the amide local anesthetic as a topical anesthetic. METHODS This study was approved by the Tokyo Dental College Ethics Committee (approval No. 392). The objective of the study was explained to the subjects by using a written summary, and informed consent was obtained from 18 healthy adult volunteers (11 males, 7 females). We used 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution with 12.5 μg/mL epinephrine (Xylestesin-A, 3M Health Care Limited, Tokyo, Japan; Lido treatment) and 20% benzocaine

Derek S. Reznik BS, DDS, MS,
 Arthur H. Jeske DMD, PhD,
 Jung-Wei Chen DDS, MS, PhD, and
 Jeryl English DDS, MS
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 56: Issue 3
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2009
Page Range: 81 – 85

intraoral dye marker. One of the 2 study drugs—20% benzocaine gel (HurriCaine Topical Anesthetic GEL, Beutlich LP Pharmaceuticals, Waukegan, Ill) or a combination product containing lidocaine 20%, tetracaine 4%, and phenylephrine 2% (TAC 20% Alternate Topical Anesthetic Gel Thick, Professional Arts Pharmacy, Lafayette, La)—was applied on the attached gingiva or alveolar mucosa overlying the intended anchorage site using a cotton-tipped applicator and was allowed to remain in contact with the tissue for the amount of time prescribed by the manufacturer (1.0 and 2.5 minutes

Guilherme Camponogara de Freiras DDS,
 Roselaine Terezinha Pozzobon PhD,
 Diego Segatto Blaya MSc, and
 Carlos Heitor Moreira PhD
Article Category: Other
Volume/Issue: Volume 62: Issue 2
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2015
Page Range: 46 – 50

signed an informed consent form. Eligible participants took part in both of the 2 test groups: test (topical anesthetic, benzocaine 20%, DFL, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and control (placebo, Novaderm, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). The products were contained in packages with distinct and equal wrappings and were identified with labels A and B. One person out of the study wrapped and codified the 2 products. The codes referring to the products were opened only after the statistical analyses of the data. The characteristics relating to color, flavor