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Figure 1 ; Example of monitor with capnography displayed.
Paul Brady,
 Christine McCreary,
 Ken D. O'Halloran, and
 Catherine Gallagher
<bold>Figure 1</bold>
Figure 1

Example of monitor with capnography displayed.


Paul Brady,
 Christine McCreary,
 Ken D. O'Halloran, and
 Catherine Gallagher
<bold>Figure 2</bold>
Figure 2

Vital signs monitor with capnography information obscured.


Daniel E. Becker and
 Andrew B. Casabianca
Figure 6
Figure 6

Supplemental Oxygen and Respiratory Monitoring. Capnography (ETCO2) is the purest measure of hypoventilation. The lower tracing in this graph shows a simultaneous elevation in ETCO2 as hypoventilation commences. The top 2 tracings show pulse oximeter readings for patients supplemented with oxygen and those breathing room air. Note the top tracing shows no warning of hypoventilation, but the tracing for patients breathing room air declines in concert with the capnographic reading (adapted from Fu ES et al 8 ).


Squamous Papilloma Causing Airway Obstruction During Conscious Sedation
Paul Brady BDS, MFDS, FFDRCSI(OS), MSc Con Sed,
 Christine McCreary MD, FDS(OM), FFDRCSI,
 Ken D. O'Halloran BSc, PhD, and
 Catherine Gallagher MB, FDSRCS, FFDRCSI(OS)
Article Category: Case Report
Volume/Issue: Volume 64: Issue 3
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2017
DOI: 10.2344/anpr-64-03-07
Page Range: 168 – 170
Kingdom and Ireland, capnography monitoring is not required for American Society of Anesthesiology physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing conscious sedation for dental procedures. 1 However, we used the Capnostream 20 vital signs monitor (Oridion, Jerusalem, Israel), which uses a Smart Capnography algorithm for the calculation of the Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI). We discuss the potential of the IPI as a monitoring tool in this setting. CASE REPORT A 43-year-old man (height 170 cm, weight 75 kg) was referred to the Cork University
Daniel E. Becker DDS and
 Andrew B. Casabianca DMD, MD
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 56: Issue 1
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2009
Page Range: 14 – 22
have been developed for gas sampling. Special nasal cannulas, designed to provide supplemental oxygen during sedation, also have a sampling line included. Cannulas without this feature can be modified by placing an IV catheter through one of the nasal prongs and attaching the monitor sampling line to the catheter hub. Capnography is the proper term for those monitors that display a continuous waveform reflecting inspiration and expiration. While capnometers and capnographs both display numeric values for ETCO 2 and respiratory rate, capnography is
Robert Matsui,
 Michelle Wong, and
 Brian Waters
<bold>Figure 2</bold>
Figure 2

Oral placement of a nasopharyngeal airway, buccal to a bite-block. Note that the supplemental oxygen line in place only, no capnography sample line, adjustable flange is placed as a reference at the labial commissure.


Shiori Sasaki,
 Hiroshi Hoshijima,
 Makoto Yasuda, and
 Kentaro Mizuta
Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Lateral View of the Patient After Successful Orotracheal Intubation.

The patient's thyromental distance was 58 mm. Successful intubation was confirmed by capnography and the patient's thoracic motions.


Figure 2. ; Capnography monitor demonstrating respiratory waveform (upper panel) and rate (89 breaths/min), oxygen saturation (SpO2; 98%), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2; 11), and pulse rate (129 beats/min). This illustrates hyperventilation with resultant low ETCO2; SpO2 is normal and alone would not serve as an index of respiratory disturbance.
Caroline McCarthy,
 Paul Brady,
 Ken D. O'Halloran, and
 Christine McCreary
Figure 2. 
Figure 2. 

Capnography monitor demonstrating respiratory waveform (upper panel) and rate (89 breaths/min), oxygen saturation (SpO2; 98%), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2; 11), and pulse rate (129 beats/min). This illustrates hyperventilation with resultant low ETCO2; SpO2 is normal and alone would not serve as an index of respiratory disturbance.


Rebecca R. Rafla,
 Mark A. Saxen,
 Juan F. Yepes,
 James E. Jones, and
 LaQuia A. Vinson
Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Participants Under General Anesthesia with Bilateral Nasopharygeal Airways (NPAs) in Place

Supplemental oxygen is supplied through the left NPA (red arrow), while the capnography sample line is inserted in the right NPA (yellow arrow). The oxygen analyzer probe (pink) is fixed within the silicon intraoral bite block on the left side of the mouth.


Daniel E. Becker and
 Andrew B. Casabianca
Figure 1
Figure 1

Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve. There is a nonlinear relationship between the percentage of total hemoglobin saturated with oxygen (SaO2) and PaO2, as demonstrated by the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve illustrated in Figure 1. Hemoglobin saturations of 95% and higher sustain PaO2 at or above 80 mm Hg, preventing hypoxemia. At 90% saturation, the curve becomes steep, and within a relatively narrow period, the percent hemoglobin saturation and PaO2 decline dramatically. The relationship between SaO2 and PaO2, although in different units, approximates a value of 30 during this rapid decline. Intracellular oxygen tension or that of mixed venous blood is normally 40 mm Hg, so that hemoglobin saturation below 70% would indicate that normal cellular function is compromised.


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