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A Review of Current Oral Sedation Agents for Pediatric Dentistry
Regina A. E. Dowdy DDS, MS,
 Sarah Forgy DDS,
 Oussama Hefnawi DDS, and
 Tiffany A. Neimar DDS
Article Category: Other
Volume/Issue: Volume 70: Issue 3
Online Publication Date: Oct 18, 2023
DOI: 10.2344/anpr-268717
Page Range: 142 – 153

females. Melatonin Endogenous melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone synthesized and released by the pineal gland. Melatonin is a major regulator of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. A natural release of melatonin occurs during periods of environmental darkness and is suppressed by light with peak hours of release between the usual sleep period of 2 and 4 am . 47 The anesthetic effect of melatonin is mediated through enhanced binding of GABA to its GABA A receptors. 48 Exogenous melatonin administration exerts a mild

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Mark Donaldson BScPhm, RPh, PharmD,
 Gino Gizzarelli BScPhm, DDS, MSc, and
 Brian Chanpong DDS, MSc
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 54: Issue 3
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2007
Page Range: 118 – 129

Biosciences Inc to compete with Ambien and Lunesta. 57 By early 2006, however, they had failed to win federal regulatory approval in the United States, yet literature citing this drug's efficacy from other countries continues to populate the medical literature. 58 Ramelteon (Rozerem) Ramelteon is the first drug in the melatonin receptor agonist class of hypnotic therapies which has recently been FDA-approved for insomnia management and which works by a completely different mechanism than all the medications discussed thus far. 59 The

Regina A. E. Dowdy DDS,
 Shadee. T. Mansour DDS,
 James H. Cottle DDS,
 Hannah R. Mabe DDS,
 Harry B. Weprin DMD,
 Leigh E. Yarborough DMD,
 Gregory M. Ness DDS,
 Todd M. Jacobs DMD, and
 Bryant W. Cornelius DDS, MBA, MPH
Article Category: Case Report
Volume/Issue: Volume 68: Issue 1
Online Publication Date: Apr 07, 2021
Page Range: 38 – 44

), marshmallow liquid (qhs), juniper tar oil (qhs), hemp oil (qhs), and melatonin (3 mg, qhs). Because of his large size and combative behavior, his mother was instructed to give his normal morning medications with a sip of water 2 hours prior to his scheduled appointment time. The patient had no reported known drug allergies. Upon presentation, a preoperative assessment revealed no new findings, and the patient was appropriately NPO, having taken his medications as instructed. The patient was transported into the operatory, and standard American Society of

Stephen Goetz DMD,
 Benjamin Pritts DMD, and
 Bryant Cornelius. DDS MBA, MPH
Article Category: Research Article
Volume/Issue: Volume 65: Issue 2
Online Publication Date: Jan 01, 2018
Page Range: 113 – 118

contraindicated. CASE REPORT A wheelchair-bound 31-year-old, 5′1″, 65-kg Caucasian woman presented to the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine's Center for Patients with Special Needs for restorative dental procedures under general anesthesia. The patient's medical history included cerebral palsy with spastic quadriplegia, scoliosis, intellectual disability, seizure disorder, and severe gastroesophageal reflux disease. Current medications included clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, docusate, lamotrigine, levocarnitine, lorazepam, melatonin