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  • METHODS
  • RESULTS
  • DISCUSSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • DISCLOSURES
  • REFERENCES
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The local anesthetics lidocaine and articaine are among the most widely used drugs in the dentist's arsenal, relieving pain by blocking voltage-dependent Na+ channels and thus preventing transmission of the pain signal. Given reports of infrequent but prolonged paresthesias with 4% articaine, we compared its neurotoxicity and functional impairment by screening cultured neural SH-SY5Y cells with formulations used in patients (2% lidocaine + 1:100,000 epinephrine or 4% articaine + 1:100,000 epinephrine) and with pure formulations of the drugs. Voltage-dependent sodium channels Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.7 were expressed in SH-SY5Y cells. To test the effects on viability, cells were exposed to drugs for 5 minutes, and after washing, cells were treated with the ratiometric Live/Dead assay. Articaine had no effect on the survival of SH-SY5Y cells, while lidocaine produced a significant reduction only when used as pure powder. To determine reversibility of blockage, wells were exposed to drugs for 5 minutes and returned for medium for 30 minutes, and the calcium elevation induced by depolarizing cells with a high-potassium solution was measured using the calcium indicator Fura-2. High potassium raised calcium in control SH-SY5Y cells and those treated with articaine, but lidocaine treatment significantly reduced the response. In conclusion, articaine does not damage neural cells more than lidocaine in this in vitro model. While this does not question the safety of lidocaine used clinically, it does suggest that articaine is no more neurotoxic, at least in the in vitro setting.

Keywords: Lidocaine; Articaine; Paresthesia; Sodium channel; Neurotoxicity; Delayed responsiveness; Calcium; Neurons
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Copyright: © 2018 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
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Article Contents

Perioperative Management of a Patient With Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension and a History of Syncope: A Case Report

Aiji Sato (Boku) DDS, PhD;,
 MinHye So MD, PhD;,
 Kazuma Fujikake MD, PhD;,
 Motoshi Tanaka MD;,
 Yuji Kamimura MD, PhD;,
 Haruko Ota MD, PhD;,
 Tomomi Mizutani DDS,
 Kenichiro Ishibashi DDS, PhD;,
 Yasuyuki Shibuya DDS, PhD;, and
 Kazuya Sobue MD, PhD

How Safe Is Anesthesia Management by Dentist Anesthesiologists? The Need for an International Collaborative Study on the Safety of Anesthesia Management by Dentist Anesthesiologists

Takuro Sanuki DDS, PhD,
 Shota Tsukimoto DDS, PhD,
 Hidetaka Kuroda DDS, PhD,
 Uno Imaizumi DDS, PhD, and
 Naotaka Kishimoto DDS, PhD

General Anesthetic Management of a Patient With Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenita Undergoing Palatoplasty Revision

Hiroka Hattori DDS,
 Aiji Sato (Boku) DDS, PhD,
 Mayuko Kanazawa DDS, PhD,
 Erika Harada DDS,
 Mami Asai DDS,
 Yuko Shikama DDS,
 Hiroko Kobayashi DDS,
 Makoto Hirohata DDS,
 Naoko Tachi DDS, PhD, and
 Masahiro Okuda MD, PhD
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