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The induction of general anesthesia for children and patients with special needs frequently requires preinduction sedation, especially when anxiety and agitation lead to violent or combative behavior. In these situations, preoperative intramuscular (IM) sedation may facilitate patient transfer, intravenous cannulation, and/or mask induction. This survey aimed to capture data regarding the current preoperative IM sedation practices of dentist anesthesiologists.


An electronic survey was distributed in 2020 to all members of the American Society of Dentist Anesthesiologists regarding the administration of preoperative IM sedation. It included questions about the demographics of respondents and their patients who require IM sedation, the most common drug regimens used, decision-making criteria regarding ketamine dosing, the intended level of sedation, sequence of anesthetic management following IM sedation, and observed outcomes.


A total of 193 responses (43%) were received; of those, 162 reported using preoperative IM sedation. Ketamine was included in 98.7% of reported IM drug regimens. The most common IM sedation regimen was combined ketamine and midazolam (median 2.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively). Of the respondents who use preoperative IM sedation, 87% reported using the same drug regimen in at least 80% of cases.


The most frequently reported drug regimen used by dentist anesthesiologists in North America for preoperative IM sedation was a combination of ketamine and midazolam.

Keywords: Intramuscular premedication; Ketamine; Dexmedetomidine; Midazolam; Preoperative sedation; Autism spectrum disorder; Special needs; Dental anesthesia
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eISSN: 1878-7177

ISSN: 0003-3006

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