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Article Contents

  • METHODS
  • RESULTS
  • DISCUSSION
  • MAP
  • HR
  • PMBF
  • CONCLUSION
  • Conflicts of Interest
  • REFERENCES
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Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts via the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor and is associated with reduced anesthetic requirements, as well as attenuated blood pressure and heart rate in response to stressful events. A previous study reported that cat gingival blood flow was controlled via sympathetic alpha-adrenergic fibers involved in vasoconstriction. In the present study, experiment 1 focused on the relationship between the effects of DEX on alpha adrenoreceptors and vasoconstriction in the tissues of the oral cavity and compared the palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) in rabbits between general anesthesia with sevoflurane and sedation with DEX. We found that the PMBF was decreased by DEX presumably because of the vasoconstriction of oral mucosal vessels following alpha-2 adrenoreceptor stimulation by DEX. To assess if this vasoconstriction would allow decreased use of locally administered epinephrine during DEX infusion, experiment 2 in the present study monitored the serum lidocaine concentration in rabbits to compare the absorption of lidocaine without epinephrine during general anesthesia with sevoflurane and sedation with DEX. The depression of PMBF by DEX did not affect the absorption of lidocaine. We hypothesize that this is because lidocaine dilates the blood vessels, counteracting the effects of DEX. In conclusion, despite decreased palatal blood flow with DEX infusion, local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors should be used in implant and oral surgery even with administered DEX.

Keywords: Dexmedetomidine; Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor; Palatal mucosal blood flow; Lidocaine; Sedation; General anesthesia
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Copyright: © 2018 by the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
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Article Contents

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 Yuji Kamimura MD, PhD;,
 Haruko Ota MD, PhD;,
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 Kenichiro Ishibashi DDS, PhD;,
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 Kazuya Sobue MD, PhD

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 Hiroko Kobayashi DDS,
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